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E-ISSN : 2148-9696
Crescent Journal of
Medical and Biological Sciences
Jan 2023, Vol 10, Issue 1
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Original Article
Explanation of the Concept of Wet Liver Dystemperament (sue-mizaj) in Iranian Traditional Medicine (Persian medicine): A Hybrid Concept Analysis
Fatemeh Hakimi1, Farideh Yaghmaei2, Abbas Alipour3, Majid Asghari4, Hasan Namdar5, Parisa Jafari6, Mina Movahhed7
1Clinical Research Development Unit, Moradi Hospital, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
2Department of Nursing, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran
3Department of Health and Social Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (MAZUMS), Mazandaran, Iran
4Traditional Medicine Research Center, School of Traditional Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
5Department of Traditional Medicine, School of traditional medicine, Shahed University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
6Department of Persian Medicine, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
7Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

CJMB 2023; 10: 020-026
DOI: 10.34172/cjmb.2023.04
Viewed : 1858 times
Downloaded : 2552 times.

Keywords : Dystemperament, Liver, Concept Analysis, Hybrid Model, Iranian Traditional Medicine, Persian Medicine
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Objectives: The semiology of liver dystemperament can help in predicting susceptibility to some diseases and improving the treatment process of the liver or general disease such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to explain the wet liver dystemperament concept in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) based on a hybrid concept analysis.

Materials and Methods: The literature review of this qualitative study focused on evaluating 11 major academic textbooks from the 3rd to 19th century and some databases. In-depth, semi-structured, and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 ITM experts with a minimum of five years of clinical experience and maximum variations in terms of gender, age, and clinical experiences for empirical data gathering. Data were analyzed with MAXQAD10 and conventional content analysis.

Results: In this study, wet liver dystemperament was classified into three main themes of systemic, local, and Para-clinical symptoms and 10 categories.

Conclusions: This manuscript explains wet liver dystemperament as a disorder in general temperament and determines more important diagnostic criteria.


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Articles by Hakimi F
Articles by Yaghmaei F
Articles by Alipour A
Articles by Asghari M
Articles by Namdar H
Articles by Jafari P
Articles by Movahhed M


Articles by Fatemeh Hakimi
Articles by Farideh Yaghmaei
Articles by Abbas Alipour
Articles by Majid Asghari
Articles by Hasan Namdar
Articles by Parisa Jafari
Articles by Mina Movahhed

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