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E-ISSN : 2148-9696
Crescent Journal of
Medical and Biological Sciences
Jan 2020, Vol 7, Issue 1
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Topical Oral Medicaments in Traditional Persian Medicine
Zoleikha Khoshbakht1, Mohammadali Torbati2, Laleh Khodaie1,3, Ehsan Khashabi4
1Department of Phytopharmacy, Faculty of Traditional Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
2Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
3Medical Philosophy and History Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
4Department of Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

CJMB 2020; 7: 17–21

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Keywords : Ethno-medicine, Ethno-pharmacology, Traditional Persian medicine, Oral, medicaments
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Objectives:Traditional, topically used oral medicaments are of great importance in the treatment of both oral and systemic diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the indications of various drug delivery forms and active ingredients of currently used medications in complementary medicine, as well as the results of recent research to fnd any possible conformity between their traditional and recent pharmaceutical properties.

Methods: In this review article, different resources including electronica databases, hand searching, the screening of reference lists and contacting experts were extensively performed, followed by categorizing the extracted data.

Results: Based on the results, 6 drug forms were found in gaseous, liquid, and solid states with more than 70 formulations. Liquid and gaseous forms were mainly used to manage systemic conditions and solid forms were mainly applied for local treatments. In addition, the investigation of about 50 herbal components showed that the traditional therapeutic effects of the vast majority of the ingredients were in line with those of the recent studies. However, no clinical studies were found regarding the traditionally mentioned systemic effects after the topical use of this medicament in the form of gargles or mouthrinse.

Conclusions: In general, the side effects of oral and injectable drugs, as well as the specifc advantages of oral mucosa in achieving the topical and systemic effects and the variety of the plant components of Iranian traditional oral medicament might have high potentials for fnding new drugs and improving treatment strategies of some systemic diseases such as central nervous system diseases and depression.

Supplementary Files
Table S1. Traditional topical oral dosage forms and examples of the most common formulations for each of them in TPM


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