|Pain after Cardiac Surgery: A Review of the Assessment and Management|
|Razieh Parizad1, Farahnaz Abdolahzadeh2, Mitra Mousavi-Shabestari1|
|1Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
2Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
CJMB 2014; 1: 113-117
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Keywords : Assessment, Control, Heart Surgery, Pain
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Objective: Surgery is among the causes of acute pain. One of the major problems of patients after surgical procedures is postoperative pain. Annually, millions of people throughout the world undergo surgery and experience different intensities of postoperative pain. Due to physiological changes and given the stability of the heart and lung, the management and control of pain is rarely considered as a priority in the care of patients after cardiac surgery. Cardiac surgical patients experience pain due to the surgical incision and between the ribs nerve injury created during the course of the surgery, and irritation and inflammation of the pleura by catheters. Control and management of pain in intensive care units (ICU) are the main tasks in nursing care. The purpose of this review study was the investigation, assessment, and management of pain in patients after cardiac surgery.
Materials and Methods: In this study, the literature available on Magiran, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and PubMed were collected, and after reviewing, the relevant literature was studied.
Results: Although pain is one of the major stressors in patients undergoing surgery, the measures taken for the treatment and care of these patients are associated with experiencing pain. In this regard, all the resources have emphasized the using of guidelines and tools to assess patients' pain. However, in cardiac surgery patients, sufficient attention is not paid to pain control. Patients reported poorly controlled pain and experiences of moderate to severe pain after surgery.
Conclusion: Pain is a subjective experience, and in patients who cannot report their pain, it should be considered important. According to numerous studies, pain control is not performed in ICUs. Thus, efforts should be made for appropriate control and reduction of pain, use of valid methods to determine and control pain, and improvement of the quality of the programs.
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